This situation constitutes a public health crisis
Providing universal access to health services will first require broad horizons of lifelong action and considerable efforts to finance and implement policies and programmes to deliver quality health care.
Theme 5 addresses the high levels of migration in the Americas region, caused by irregular and forced migration driven largely by economic factors, but also by wars, conflicts and violence.
Many irregular migrants attempt to cross Central America to the United States and are at increased risk of violence, abuse and exploitation, trauma, illness and mental disorders, coupled with limited access to health care and services. This situation constitutes a public health crisis and must be addressed as such. This theme refers to the broader framework for Health System actions to protect the health and well-being of all migrants, as shown in the strategic lines of action defined in World Health Organization (WHO) resolution WHA.
One of these lines recognizes the need to strengthen
Adopted in 2008 and resolution CD55.R13 of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) approved in 2016 on the health of migrants. One of these lines recognizes the need to strengthen and promote cross-sectoral action and multi-country frameworks to address the social determinants of migrant health, enhance community resilience, and develop migrant-sensitive social policies and programmes.
Topic 6 discusses inequities in the Americas.
Latin America and the Caribbean remains the most unequal region in the world, with almost one third of the population below the poverty line. This huge disparity is one of the causes that underlies not only the increased risk for NCDS, infectious diseases, malnutrition and lower life expectancy for the quintiles bottom of the socioeconomic distribution, but is also directly associated with reduced access to health services. Inequities therefore constitute a major obstacle to achieving universal access. Specific interventions and investments are needed to transform health systems into comprehensive, integrated and equitable services that are accessible to all.
The MDGs provided useful lessons on the dangers of transforming imprecise goals into programmes and policies. The emphasis on nationally consolidated figures concealed the growing inequalities and led to health coverage policies that accentuated those inequalities.
In addition, some of these diseases could mainly
The adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals and the 2030 Agenda is a call for the region to act to end poverty and strive for comprehensive prosperity, in all its basic dimensions. These goals will need to be translated into quantifiable targets that guide governments and partners towards universal health coverage and reducing all inequities in health outcomes.
What health problems or diseases affect women in different ways than men?
Some health problems that are common in both women and men affect women in different ways. While the symptoms may be similar, the effects of the disease and the care needed may be significantly different for women. In addition, some of these diseases could mainly or more severely affect women than men. For example, nearly 12% of women in the United States are at risk of developing breast cancer in their lifetime.1 male breast cancer accounts for less than 1% of existing cancer cases.2
Below are selected health problems and their effects on women.
Up to 5.3 million women in the United States abuse alcohol, putting their health, safety and overall well-being at risk. While men are more likely to have alcohol dependence or addiction than women during their lives, the effects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism (when a person has signs of alcohol addiction) are more severe in women. These health effects include an increased risk of breast cancer, heart disease, and fetal alcohol syndrome, in which babies born to mothers who drink alcohol during pregnancy suffer from brain damage and learning difficulties.
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in American women. While these diseases are also the leading cause of death in American men, women are more likely than men to die after a heart attack. In addition, women are more likely to experience delays in emergency care and treatment to control cholesterol levels. Mental health – Women are more likely than men to have signs of depression and anxiety. Depression is the most common mental health problem in women, 5 and more women than men are
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. Causes pain, stiffness and swelling in the joints. Arthritis is the leading cause of physical disability in the United States. This disease affects almost 27 million people, and affects more women than men. Sexually transmitted diseases/sexually transmitted infections (STD / STI). The effects of STD / STI in women may be more severe than in men. In the United States, untreated STD/STIs cause infertility in at least 24,000 women each year. STD/STIs in women are often left untreated because the symptoms are less evident than in men and are more likely to be confused with another less serious disease, such as a fungal infection.
Women are more likely to report having stress
Stress – According to a recent survey by the American Psychological Association, Stress in women is on the rise. Women are more likely to report having stress, and nearly 50% of women who participated in the survey, compared to 39% of men, reported that their stress level had increased in the past 5 years.9 stress also has exclusive effects on women. A recent NICHD study found that stress could reduce a woman’s chance of becoming pregnant.
Every year, more women than men suffer a stroke. While many of the risk factors for stroke are the same in men and women, such as family history of stroke, high blood pressure and high cholesterol, some risk factors are unique to women. These include:
- Taking birth control pills
- Being pregnant
Using hormone replacement therapy – a combination hormone therapy of progestin and estrogen designed to relieve the symptoms of menopause. Having frequent migraines. Have a wide waist (over 35.2 inches), particularly if the woman is in the postmenopausal stage and has high levels of triglycerides (blood fat). Urinary tract health – Women are more likely than men to have urinary tract problems. For example, urinary incontinence affects twice as many women as men12 due to the structure of the female urinary tract.